I took this Indigo Bunting photograph last spring in Northfield. Because first-year males can look like females, the gender of this bunting is unknown. First-year birds learn their song from neighboring buntings, but they do not sing their father’s song. The result is local song dialects, which can last up to 20 years. The dialects are not permanent, and can change, especially if new individuals move into an area (Payne 2006).