I have written that I expect Fish Crows to be found in Minnesota. These small crows are expanding their range from coastal areas of the Southeast. They are adapting successfully to urban settings (McGowan 2001).
The problem is that Fish and American crows are very similar. We took the upper photo of a Fish Crow in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge last March. The lower photo is of the larger American Crow. In the field, calls are the only reliable difference. McGowan writes, “the Fish Crow sounds like an American Crow with a bad cold.” Here in Minnesota, however, I have heard American Crows that sound like Fish Crows. I have even heard Minnesota birds give what sounded like a Fish Crow’s double-noted “Uh-uh” call. One difficulty is that young American Crows often give odd calls.